The University of Minnesota is one of the leading centers for pain research in the world. There are twelve neuroscientists whose research is focused on pain transmission, hyperalgesia, and endogenous pain inhibitory systems. Studies of pain transmission include mapping anatomically and physiologically sensory pathways in the spinal cord and brain. In studies of hyperalgesia, effects of injury and inflammation on the physiology and biochemistry of nociceptive neurons located in the peripheral and central nervous system are being determined. The anatomical organization of endogenous analgesic systems that originate in the brain and control nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord, and regulation of their receptors, are also being studied. A wide variety of techniques is used by the group, including molecular biology, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, animal behavior, human psychophysics, and neuroimaging. In addition, many of the basic scientists interact with clinical faculty who specialize in pain management and are actively involved in clinical studies that help bridge the gap between basic and clinical sciences.